Waste minimization: water use in a Kenyan milk powder factory

Water consumption was measured in a milk processing plant which primarily produces milk powder and butter. There is no milk powder production in the dry season, when the milk is pasteurized and taken elsewhere for packaging. Distribution of water to differenl ports of the lactory was analysed. The factory's water saving potential is estimated to be 45 per cent during the dry season and 43 per cent during the milk powder production season. Proposals are mode for saving water.

The design, construction and testing of a solar operated refrigeration unit

The project consisted of the design, construction, and testing of an exclusively solar operated refrigeration unit. Direct application of solar energy to refrigeration involved the use of an intermittent absorption refrigeration system. Design specifications were:- 1/8 ton of refrigeration at - 200C evaporator temperature refrigeration process to last 3 hours. Ambient temperature variation from 200C to 350C. Minimum generation period of 3 hours. For the unit, the design procedures to meet system specifications have been explained, and component fabrication processes outlined.

Development of a flat-plate solar milk pasteuriser for arid pastoral areas of Kenya

Milk marketing is an important income earning opportunity for people in arid
pastoral areas of Kenya. To minimise losses along the milk chain, traders boil
milk using scanty wood fuel which negatively affects the environment. The
abundant solar radiation in these areas could be explored for its suitability for
milk processing. Therefore, a solar milk pasteuriser consisting of flat-plate
water heating collector and a 1.5 mm thick stainless steel cylindrical milk vat
was designed and tested in an arid pastoral area of Kenya. The milk vat had a

Kenya's dairy industry: the marketing system and the marketing and pricing policies for fresh milk

Organisation of the dairy industry and the marketing system in Kenya is highlighted and marketing and pricing of milk in Kenya is discussed. The formal and the informal milk marketing subsystems are also discussed. The Kenya Cooperative Creameries Limited (KCC) handles most of the marketed milk that is not sold and consumed in the rural areas. A major role of the KCC is to receive, process and distribute fresh milk (as pasteurised milk) on a daily basis.

Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district,Kenya

Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in
Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing
practices. In this study, existing postharvest handling, preservation and processing
practices for camel milk by pastoralists in Isiolo, Kenya were assessed through crosssectional survey and focus group discussions. A total of 167 camel milk producer
households, 50 primary and 50 secondary milk traders were interviewed. Survey

Efficiency use of Water In dryland areas of kenya on maize Farming

This study was undertaken to investigate the variations of
water use efficiency of two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.),
viz. makueni and katumani composite B with planting density.
and meteorological parameters under rainfed conditions. The
study was conducted during the short rains season of 1990 at
Kibwezi Dryland Research Station of the University of Nairobi
in Machakos district, Kenya.
The experimental design comprised two blocks, one for each
maize variety, and three treatments characterised by Low

Prevalence of enterotoxigenic bacillus cereus and its enterotoxins in milk and milk products in and around Nairobi

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) and enterotoxins in milk and milk products. Design: A random sampling of milk products was carried out.
Setting: Market milk and milk products were collected from retail shops in Nairobi and analysed for contamination with enterotoxigenicB. cereus and its enterotoxins using reverse passive latex agglutination and TECRA ELISA immunoassay tests.

Fuel Oil and Electricity Consumption in a- Kenyan Milk Powder Factory

Fuel oil and electrical energy consumption in a milk processing plant was measured daily for a whole year. The plant has a processing capacity of 150 tons of milk per day. The plant primarily produced milk powder and butter. However. no milk powder was produced in the dry season since the milk was pasteurized and taken elsewhere for packaging. Fuel oil consumption averaged 595 MJ per ton milk intake when there was no milk powder production and 2230 MJ per ton milk intake during the milk powder production season.

Design And Evaluation Of Solar Maize Grain Dryer With A Back-up Heater

A solar dryer integrated with a simple biomass burner was designed and constructed
with locally available materials to dry maize. The dryer was composed of solar
collector, drying chamber, back-up heater and airflow system all integrated together.
The back-up heater provided alternative heating during cloudy weather conditions or
at night when solar radiations were low. The dryer was designed based on climatic
conditions of Mau summit located in Nakuru County, Kenya. The average ambient

Aflatoxin Contamination On Maize

Food and feed safety has been a major concern in most countries in the recent times as more
knowledge is being generated on the occurrence of natural toxins in foodstuffs and edible
plant species. Among the natural toxins, aflatoxins have been given more attention due to their
hazardous effects to animals and human beings. A study was conducted on aflatoxin
contamination in maize samples collected from lower eastern counties in Kenya. The maize
samples were collected through a survey that was conducted in Kitui, Machakos and Makueni


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