TP53 mutations, human papilloma virus DNA and inflammation markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from the Rift Valley, a high-incidence area in Kenya.

BACKGROUND: Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus is one of the most common malignancies in both men and women in eastern and south-eastern Africa. In Kenya, clinical observations suggest that this cancer is frequent in the Rift Valley area. However, so far, there has been no report on the molecular characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in this area.

Impact of climate change and gender roles in community adaptation: A case study of pastoralists in Samburu East District, Kenya

Climate change continues to be of great concern both nationally and internationally, especially with regards to resource allocation and utilization for adaptation and mitigation. It is also clear that climate change is accelerating; taking almost catastrophic dimensions and the impacts are felt greater across the world than in the past thirty years. The impacts of climate change in the form of hurricanes, floods, and droughts affect the entire communities and presumably therefore, affect the lives of both women and men in a number of ways.

The transformation of cattle economy in Rongo division

This study is an analytical product of archival, oral and library research on the dynamics of cattle economy in Rongo division during the colonial period. The study set out to examine why, how and with what results the pre-colonial. Viability and resourcefulness of cattle economy was eroded under colonialism.

Knowledge, attitude and practices of type two diabetes in a rural community in Karatina- Nyeri county

Background: Diabetes is a chronic, debilitating disease that requires life-long treatment and greatly increases the risk of serious long-term complications especially where poor management is concerned. This disease requires competent self management, which can be developed from a thorough under-standing of the disease process by an individual.

Studies in mixed cropping. 3. Further results with maize-bean mixtures.

In contrast to earlier results, a clear advantage from mixed cropping of maize and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was found in the long-rain seasons (March-Sept.) of l976 and l977. Pure stand yields were low due to drought in l976 and excessive rainfall in 1977. These and other results for long-rain seasons in Kenya suggested that mixtures were more efficient where pure stand yield levels were low but there was little difference between cropping systems where levels were high. Light interception by maize leaves was quite small until late in the life of the bean crop.

Tillage Effects on Selected Soil Physical Properties in a Maize-Bean Intercropping System in Mwala District, Kenya

A field study was carried out to evaluate the effects of tillage practices on soil physical properties in Mwala district, Eastern Kenya, during the long rains (LR) and short rains (SR) of 2012/13. The treatments were disc ploughing (DP), disc ploughing and harrowing (DPH), ox-ploughing (OX), subsoiling-ripping (SSR), hand hoeing with tied ridges (HTR), hand hoeing only (H). These were investigated under three cropping systems of sole maize, sole bean, and maize-bean intercrop in a split-plot design with four replications.

An economic analysis of coconut production in Kwale district ,Kenya

This study, conducted in Kikoneni location of Kwale district, was prompted by Kenya's net importation of vegetable oil, whereby it spends almost US$ 80 million or Ksh 4.5 billion annually to purchase 200,000 metric tons of vegetable oil (80% of its domestic demand). Resulting in a significant drain on the scarce foreign exchange reserves, thereby an emphasis by the government to promote local oilcrops production to levels of self-sufficiency (Development plan, 1989-1993).

Impact of longterm inorganic fertilization with emphasis on heavy metals, soil PH and total organic carbon on maize farm soils in trans Nzoia Kenya.

This research was carried out to analyze the effect of long term use of inorganic fertilizers on the Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, soil pH and TOC in maize farm soils in Kenya. Samples of soil were collected from 12 experimental sites from Kerita farm that has experienced more than 20 years of inorganic fertilizer application and 2 samples from the control site (Kiptuimet primary school), Trans Nzoia in Kenya while fertilizer samples were purchased from the nearby Kolongolo Market.

Effects of legume cover crops and sub-soiling on soil properties and maize growth in Machakos District, Kenya

Incorporating legume cover crops into the cropping systems and sub soiling/ripping has been used as an alternative method of improving soil fertility, crop yields and minimizing soil erosion problems. The current study explored the use of legumes and subsoiling in Kalama division, Machakos District, Kenya. The area has an average annual rainfall of 600 mm which has 66% reliability.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices on climate change Adaptation by small holder farmers in Mwala constituency, Machakos County,Kenya

Climate variability and change is affecting weather patterns and this has serious repercussions on food production among smallholder farmers in Kenya. In particular, semi-arid environments such as Machakos County are extremely vulnerable to climate variability and change because their crop production systems are sensitive to and reliant on rainfall. This study was undertaken in Machakos County, and sought to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices on climate change adaptation by smallholder farmers within Mwala Constituency.

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